Ontario Animal Health Network (OAHN)
Equine Expert Network
Quarterly Veterinary Report

Global Surveillance Update: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in U.S. livestock

Spillover of Influenza A (H5N1) into U.S. livestock was first reported in March 2024 and continues to evolve. Initially a goat kid in Minnesota tested positive for HPAI followed by an announcement from USDA that H5N1 had been detected in milk from ill dairy cattle. These events are now understood to have involved two separate spillover events of the virus from birds to livestock.

Multiple States and numerous U.S. herds have now confirmed the detection of HPAI in dairy cattle associated with the movement of dairy cattle from infected herds and with spread between cows likely occurring through contaminated milking equipment, as infected cows shed high levels of virus in their milk. However, transmission pathways are still being studied.

At the time of this report, there have been no detections of HPAI in Canadian livestock, including cattle or horses. This is a rapidly evolving situation, and livestock practitioners are encouraged to stay informed. HPAI is a federally reportable disease in any species. If you suspect HPAI, report it to your local CFIA district office.

For more information:

Updates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture updated numbers on confirmed cases of HPAI in U.S livestock, biosecurity guidance, and milk safety documents.

Updates from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) for the latest Canadian information and guidance.

CFIA Guidance for Veterinarians for testing and reporting.


OAHN Equine has a dedicated Instagram and Facebook page!

Help us spread the word to horse owners, industry participants and equine veterinarians!

OAHN Equine on Instagram

OAHN Equine on Facebook

Strangles and EHV-1 Resources

The OAHN Equine network has put together a list of Strangles and EHV-1 resources for veterinarians and owners. They are available at:

Equine Strangles Resources – Ontario Animal Health Network (oahn.ca)

Equine Herpesvirus-1 Resources – Ontario Animal Health Network (oahn.ca)

The Ontario map of facilities dealing with Strangles and EHM can be found here:

Equine Disease Tracking Network v 2.1 (arcgis.com)

Strangles and EHM alert notifications are available at:

BITS ‘N SNIPS (or “things we talked about on the network call”)

Tapeworms in Horses – Is there resistance developing?

In a recent journal article1, Dr. Martin Nielson reported on the potential development of resistance of the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata to the anthelmintics praziquantel and pyrantel pamoate. Actual resistance could not be demonstrated because of the lack of a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) appropriate for tapeworm studies in the field. As a reminder, fecal egg count (FEC) tests lose sensitivity when worm burdens are low therefore the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), which relies on pre- and post-treatment FECs, becomes unreliable.  In this report, Nielsen states that he embarked on this study due to “reports from veterinarians in central Kentucky of apparent failure to eliminate A. perfoliata eggs treated with either anthelmintic.” After evaluating pre- and post- anthelmintic treatment in Thoroughbred yearlings and mares at two facilities, Nielsen found a loss of efficacy for both pyrantel and praziquantel in both age groups of horses. This loss in efficacy may have been due to a lack of FEC monitoring and the challenges with fecal egg detection in tapeworms using current on-farm and more popular laboratory techniques. Treatment failure with pyrantel and praziquantel has also been observed in the United Kingdom (Jane Hodgkinson, unpublished data2).

As a follow up to this paper3, Anderson et al, evaluated three techniques for detecting and counting tapeworm eggs in naturally infected horses: Proudman and Edwards, Cornell-Wisconsin and Mini-FLOTAC. This is important because standard FEC tests for strongylid eggs perform poorly for tapeworm eggs. For example, the diagnostic sensitivity of the McMaster technique is <10% for tapeworm eggs. Eighteen mares, members of the University of Kentucky research herd and naturally infected with tapeworms as well as other parasites, were split into three age groups (3-10 yrs., 11-14 yrs., 15-20 yrs.) and FECs performed. The Proudman and Edwards technique significantly outperformed the other two techniques. Seventy samples were positive for at least one technique. Of those positive samples, the Proudman and Edwards was positive in 90%, the Cornell-Wisconsin in 60% and the Mini-FLOTAC in 20%. The Proudman and Edwards technique uses a significantly greater amount of feces (40g compared to 2 g for the Mini-FLOTAC) and has more than one centrifugation step. These differences are likely important for the greater success of tapeworm egg detection and counting with this technique. The Proudman and Edwards technique is more laborious than the other two, however, and will need to be modified for field use.

  1. Apparent treatment failure of praziquantel and pyrantel pamoate against anoplocephalid tapeworms. Nielsen MK. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2023 Aug;22:96-101Free PMC article.
  2. BEVA primary care clinical guidelines: Equine parasite control. Rendle D, Hughes K, Bowen M, Bull K, Cameron I, Furtado T, Peachey L, Sharpe L, Hodgkinson J.Equine Vet J. 2024 May;56(3):392-423.
  3. Performance of three techniques for diagnosing equine tapeworm infection. Anderson HC, Warner SF, Ripley NE, Nielsen MK.Vet Parasitol. 2024 Apr;327:110152


Network Member Reports

Southwestern Region

(Melissa McKee)

In Q1 2024 we had a surge in severe tying-up episodes in STB racehorses. Some of these were chronically affected individuals experiencing an unusually bad event, but there were also many horses with no history at all. There was some speculation that it was due to variable hay quality and NSC content due to the poor growing season. A number of horses developed vaccine site abscesses in spite of normal technique/injection site and no co-administration of MLV strangles vaccine on the same day. Strangles cases have leveled off and some farms have been able to move past strict quarantine/biosecurity measures.

Dermatitis in the form of heel scratches as well as body-wide hive/scabs have been prevalent, as well as an increased number of lice cases. Colics have remained the usual late winter type; impactions and a few enteritis/displacements.

Western Region

(Tara Foy)

We saw typical cases in Q1. A usual amount of dystocias, some with foals with contracted tendons that occurred later in the season. Some foals had undifferentiated diarrhea for a few days but responded with fluids/plasma. We had a few mild pneumonia cases in the foals that have responded well to treatment. We had one lymphoma case which presented as a colitis and was referred to a hospital. Ultrasound examination of the liver showed several lesions consistent with lymphoid nodules.
Eastern Ontario

(John Donovan)

Q1 was fairly quiet with typical winter colics consisting of impaction and spasmodic colics with the occasional surgical displacement. A few cases of isolated respiratory disease occurred. We also had a horse positive for coronavirus as well as a few cases with fever of unknown origin which is typical of what we see in the early months of winter, extending into spring.  These horses often have some form of ventral edema or limb edema and respond to NSAIDS, resolving in 3 to 4 days. We started our foaling season a bit later than in southwestern Ontario. We had some late February to March foals. The foalings were pretty uneventful and the majority of foals hit the ground healthy.  We had a couple of mares with dystocia which also developed retained placentas.  We had the odd case with a skin condition, likely due to the wet, cool winter.  Blanketed horses got scurf under their blankets, and those not blanketed developed a rain rot type of presentation. Asthma was notable in our stabled horses typical of poor quality hay. Horses came out of the mild winter generally well, with body scores 0.5-1 greater than after other winters.
Ontario Veterinary College

(Memo Arroyo)

We had a fair number of peri- and postpartum mares with different issues such as postpartum peritonitis, rectal prolapse, retained placentas and dystocias. The latter were mainly due to foals in the wrong presentation or with contracted limbs. A couple of foals survived foaling but had to be euthanized due to severely contracted limbs. A few horses were admitted with “fever of unknown origin” which turned out to be coronavirus. A small outbreak of coronavirus had occurred in the Toronto area. We also admitted several horses with colic, many of which were surgical.  We also admitted several horses for Strangles diagnosis and management with some staying for weeks.
AHL Pathology

(Emily Ratsep)

  • 6-month-old warmblood filly presented with acute, profuse diarrhea with no clinical improvement despite treatment. The filly was dull and recumbent and was euthanized. Postmortem diagnosis: Cranial mesenteric artery verminous arteritis with thrombosis secondary to Strongylus vulgaris. Secondary bacterial infection of the thrombi produced softening and embolized particles to the colonic artery, with subsequent propagation of the embolus and infarction of the colon. The same bacteria are thought to be responsible for mesenteric lymphadenitis and abscessation. Bacterial culture of the mesenteric lymph node isolated Salmonella, E.coli, S. equi subsp zooepidemicus, Actinobacillus equuli, Fusobacterium varium, Clostridium sporogenes, and Clostridium sartagoforme. The encysted strongyles in the colon have morphological features of cyathosomes, which may have contributed to the antemortem colitis. Molecular testing of the large intestine revealed Lawsonia intracellularis and Salmonella spp., which explain the multifocal ulcerative typhlitis and severe segmental fibrinonecrotizing enteritis found grossly. These bacteria are considered the major cause of the poor growth and antemortem colitisMolecular and morphological evaluation of the nematode larvae found in the peritoneum are confirmatory of Strongylus edentatus, which are rarely reported in North America. The hemorrhage and inflammation in the peritoneum are consequences of S. edentatus migration.
  • 13-year-old Quarter Horse mare developed acute colic signs consistent with small intestine involvement. Postmortem diagnosis: Small intestinal infarction (mesenteric torsion). Though a relatively uncommon cause of colic, small intestinal torsions can occur in horses of any age. They can occur as a result of abnormal gut motility, impaction, adhesions or neoplasia. No impaction or adhesions were observed and there were no grossly apparent changes to suggest a neoplastic process. Mesenteric torsions can also occur sporadically.
  • 10-year-old mixed breed mare presented with a multilobular, pedunculated mass in its right nostril.  The mass was vascular, with smooth edges and firm. Histopathologic diagnosis: polypoid stromal and vascular proliferation,  with myxoid matrix, edema, hemorrhage and necrosis, focally extensive, marked (suspect traumatized sinonasal polyp, rule out progressive ethmoid hematoma, or myxoid neoplasm).  The mass is unusual in appearance and appears to be most consistent with a myxoid neoplasm. As there is no recognizable normal tissue available for assessment, it is difficult to differentiate with any certainty between myxoma/myxosarcoma and other myxoid neoplasms. Invasion is often the most notable criteria to diagnose myxosarcoma or other malignant neoplasms. The vascular component combined with the active and highly cellular stroma (with some nuclear pleomorphism and mitoses) suggests a proliferative process. There is a degree of myxomatous matrix, but overlap with areas of hemorrhage and edema complicates the interpretation. If this mass arises deeper within the nasal passages (caudal nasal chonchae), then an inflammatory polyp or possible progressive ethmoid hematoma could be considered (benign progressively hyperplastic growths). If the mass arises more proximally in the nostril (towards the glabrous skin surface), then a traumatized polypoid myxoma/myxosarcoma may be more likely. These are generally non metastasizing and complete excision (for both) is generally considered curative. Imaging may provide further information as to location of origin.
  • 25 year old miniature horse gelding was found off feed and drooling with dental disease and malocclusions on dental examination. Multifocal lesions (raised, white nodules, 3-7 mm in diameter) were generalized to all mucosal surfaces within the mouth ( along buccal aspect, roof of mouth, tongue ). Multifocal bleeding ulcers were present along buccal and tongue mucosa. Histologic diagnosis: Immune-mediated interface dermatitis with suprabasilar clefting, suspect pemphigus vulgaris. The submitted sample contains multiple intact, well-preserved vesicles. The presence of basal cells lining the base of these vesicles (tombstoning) is consistent with suprabasilar clefting. This, coupled with interface dermatitis, is very concerning for pemphigus vulgaris. Definitive diagnosis of this condition depends on visualizing acantholytic cells which were not appreciated in these sections. Bullous pemphigoid was considered as a differential, however clefting with this condition would be expected to be subepidermal (no tombstoning cells). Both of these conditions are uncommon immune-mediated dermatopathies of horses which can begin in, or be localized to, the oral cavity. Prognosis is guarded for these conditions.

(Hannah Golightly


Alison Moore)

Immediately Notifiable Diseases: Case Reports to OMAFRA

Equine Herpesvirus-1: There were 3 facilities affected by EHM due to EHV-1 in Q1 involving 6 PCR positive horses. The facilities were located in Simcoe, Grey and Middlesex Counties. Two other facilities in Perth County and the Regional Municipality of Durham had an abortion and weak foal diagnosed with EHV-1 respectively. One horse tested PCR positive when screened to enter a broodmare facility.






Map of counties with facilities positive for EHV-1 in Q1. Available from:

Equine Disease Tracking Network v 2.1 (arcgis.com)



Strangles: During Q1 there were 9 facilities managing Strangles located in: Grey County (2), the Regional Municipality of Waterloo (1), City of Hamilton (1), Regional Municipality of Halton (1), York County (1), Wellington County (1), City of Kawartha Lakes (1)

Equine Influenza: In Q1, there was one facility in Brant County positive for equine influenza.







Q1 Equine Syndromic Surveillance:

Graphs of disease syndromes based on samples sent for testing to the Animal Health Laboratory. This information is compiled based on the type of sample, test ordered, and key terms included in the submission history (if provided).

Please follow:

Outbreaks | Equine Disease Communication Center (equinediseasecc.org) for reported outbreaks!


Syndromic and AHL Laboratory Data Surveillance

Survey – Key points

  • 23 Counties represented
  • 47% equine, 18% mixed animal, 12% equine and food animal, 12% equine and small animal and 12% referral practice veterinarians responded.
  • 24% of veterinarians reported working with pleasure/backyard horses, 21% with performance/Competition/Show horses, 17% with foals, breeding and young stock, 14% with draft horses, 11% with mules/donkeys 8% with racehorses, and 6% with buggy horses.
  • Increases in Q1 were noted for (foal): Rhodococcus equi, unidentified respiratory disease, C. difficile diarrhea, septicemia, dystocia births
  • Increases in Q1 were noted for (adult) Equine asthma, Strangles / bastard Strangles, influenza, enteritis, colitis, tetracycline responsive diarrhea, surgical and non-surgical colics (impaction colics), lipomas, lice, allergic dermatitis, ringworm, fungal dermatitis, sweet itch, photoactive vasculitis, dystocias, retained placenta, PPID, EMS, fever of unknown origin, Lyme disease, moxidectin resistant pinworm infection, recurrent uveitis / leptospirosis, vaccine reactions, severe RER cases in Standardbred racehorses, solar abscesses, S. equi positives in asymptomatic horses.

New conditions or those without a diagnosis:

  • Fevers of unknown origin
The percentage of positive S. equi PCR tests in Q1 was increased over Q1 2023. Note: previous graphs for 2023 included tests from other provinces.


There were no positive PHF PCR tests from AHL in Q1.



From results obtained from this laboratory, there were four horses diagnosed with EHM in Q1.  Two mares were diagnosed with abortion due to EHV-1 and there was a weak foal which was euthanized due to EHV-1. In the province, a total of 3 facilities were affected by EHM and there were  a total of 9 positive PCR tests.





In Q1, there was a rise in the number of cases which cultured positive for Klebsiella oxytoca or pneumonia. There was also an  increase in the number of cases which cultured positive for Salmonella sp. Of the 4 horses that tested positive, three were positive for S. Braenderup and one for S. enteritidis.






In Q1, there was a significant increase in the number of postmortem diagnoses of neurologic origin than in Q1 2023. There was also a noticeable decrease in the number of respiratory and systemic disease diagnoses.

Equine Research from Ontario and Around the World

Researchers in Ontario

Non-invasive electroarthrography measures cartilage in live horses and correlates to direct measurements of cartilage streaming potentials in weight bearing regions of equine metacarpophalangeal joints.Changoor A, Garon M, Quenneville E, Savard P, Buschmann MD, Hurtig MB.Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2024 Apr 26:S1063-4584(24)01163-4. Free article.

Analysis of current methods and Welfare concerns in the transport of 118 horses by commercial air cargo companies.Felici M, Cogger N, Nanni Costa L, Riley CB, Padalino B.BMC Vet Res. 2024 Apr 26;20(1):158. Free PMC article.

The seroprevalence and risk factors for exposure to Neospora caninum and Neospora hughesi in Ontario broodmares.Johns O, Pearl DL, Foster RA, Barta J, Chenier T.Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports. 2024 May;50:101002.

Infrared Spectroscopy of Synovial Fluid Shows Accuracy as an Early Biomarker in an Equine Model of Traumatic Osteoarthritis.Panizzi L, Vignes M, Dittmer KE, Waterland MR, Rogers CW, Sano H, McIlwraith CW, Riley CB.Animals (Basel). 2024 Mar 22;14(7):986 Free PMC article.

microRNAs are differentially expressed in equine plasma of horses with osteoarthritis and osteochondritis dissecans versus control horses.Antunes J, Salcedo-Jiménez R, Lively S, Potla P, Coté N, Dubois MS, Koenig J, Kapoor M, LaMarre J, Koch TG.PLoS One. 2024 Feb 23;19(2):e0297303Free PMC article.

One Health: Circadian Medicine Benefits Both Non-human Animals and Humans Alike.Farag HI, Murphy BA, Templeman JR, Hanlon C, Joshua J, Koch TG, Niel L, Shoveller AK, Bedecarrats GY, Ellison A, Wilcockson D, Martino TA.J Biol Rhythms. 2024 Feb 20:7487304241228021. Free article.

Researchers around the world


Micro-CT and histological examination of accessory canals in 34 equine cheek teeth.Korsós SA et al.Front Vet Sci. 2024 Apr 10;11:1396871. Free PMC article.


Automated Spectrophotometric Assays for the Measurement of Ammonia and Bicarbonate in Saliva of Horses: Analytical Validation and Changes in Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS).Muñoz-Prieto A. et al. Metabolites. 2024 Feb 28;14(3):147 Free PMC article.

Current Understanding of Equine Gut Dysbiosis and Microbiota Manipulation Techniques: Comparison with Current Knowledge in Other Species.Boucher L et al. Animals (Basel). 2024 Feb 28;14(5):758. Free PMC article. Review.

Retrospective Study of 25 Cases of Acorn Intoxication Colitis in Horses between 2011 and 2018 and Factors Associated with Non-Survival.Hermange T, Ruault B, Couroucé A.Animals (Basel). 2024 Feb 12;14(4):599. Free PMC article.

Spotting the Pattern: A Review on White Coat Color in the Domestic Horse.McFadden A et al. Animals (Basel). 2024 Jan 30;14(3):451.  Free PMC article. Review.

Health Management

Effect of hay nets on horse bodyweight, body condition score, hay usage, and dental health in mature adult horses.DeBoer M et al. J Equine Vet Sci. 2024 Mar 24;136:105051.

‘It’s more emotionally based’: Prince Edward Island horse owner perspectives of horse weight management.Ross M et al. Anim Welf. 2024 Mar 11;33:e14. Free PMC article.

Noncontact infrared thermometer measurements offer a reasonable alternative to rectal temperature measurement in afebrile horses.Zobrist CN, Bishop RC, McCoy AM.J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2024 Mar 8:1-7.

Horse Racing

Dirt Track Surface Preparation and Associated Differences in Speed, Stride Length, and Stride Frequency in Galloping Horses.Pfau T et al. .Sensors (Basel). 2024 Apr 11;24(8):2441. Free PMC article.

Treatment Comparison for Medial Femoral Condyle Subchondral Cystic Lesions and Prognosis in Yearling Thoroughbred Racehorse Prospects.Pérez-Nogués M et al. .Animals (Basel). 2024 Apr 6;14(7):1122. Free PMC article.

Associations between Racing Thoroughbred Movement Asymmetries and Racing and Training Direction.Forbes B et al. Animals (Basel). 2024 Apr 3;14(7):1086. Free PMC article

Stakeholder perceptions of thoroughbred yearling sales endoscopy in Australia: can we do better?Hardwick JL et al.Aust Vet J. 2024 Apr 9.

Condylar fracture location is correlated to exercise history in Thoroughbred racehorses.Bergstrom TC et al. Equine Vet J. 2024 Apr 7.

Immune Response

Supplementation of Foals with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product Alters the Early Response to Vaccination.Terpeluk ER et al. Animals (Basel). 2024 Mar 20;14(6):960. Free PMC article.

Infectious Disease

Updated ACVIM consensus statement on equine herpesvirus-1.Lunn DP et al. J Vet Intern Med. 2024 Mar 18. Free article.

The potential risks of equine serum therapy in transmitting new infectious diseases: lessons from a post-pandemic era.Pucca MB, Camphora AL.Front Public Health. 2024 Feb 14;12:1366929. Free PMC article.

Antimicrobial Residue Accumulation Contributes to Higher Levels of Rhodococcus equi Carrying Resistance Genes in the Environment of Horse-Breeding Farms.Higgins C et al.Vet Sci. 2024 Feb 17;11(2):92. Free PMC article.

Persistence of Anti-Rabies Antibody Response in Horses Following Vaccination.Tirosh-Levy S et al. Pathogens. 2024 Jan 28;13(2):125. Free PMC article.

Metabolic disease

Arthrospira platensis enriched with Cr(III), Mg(II), and Mn(II) ions improves insulin sensitivity and reduces systemic inflammation in equine metabolic affected horses. Tomal A,  et al. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2024 Apr 16;15:1382844. Free PMC article.

Retrospective assessment of the use of extended-release cabergoline in the management of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.Sundra T et al. Front Vet Sci. 2024 Mar 6;11:1332337. Free PMC article.

Effect of Exercise Conditioning on Countering the Effects of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Horses-A Review.Pratt-Phillips S.Animals (Basel). 2024 Feb 26;14(5):727. Free PMC article.

Effect of phenylbutazone on insulin secretion in horses with insulin dysregulation.Kemp KL et al.J Vet Intern Med. 2024 Mar-Apr;38(2):1177-1184. Free PMC article.

Factors affecting measurement of basal adrenocorticotropic hormone in adult domestic equids: A scoping review.Ireland JL, Lester A, Banse HE.Vet J. 2024 Apr;304:106071. Free article. Review.


Clinicopathological and pedigree investigation of a novel spinocerebellar neurological disease in juvenile Quarter Horses in North America.Willis AT et al. J Vet Intern Med. 2024 Apr 26. Free article.

Application of the HRE-S to 140 horses with trigeminal-mediated headshaking and the association of clinical signs with diagnosis, therapy, and outcome.Kloock T et al. Front Vet Sci. 2024 Apr 5;11:1329054 Free PMC article.

Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy/degenerative myeloencephalopathy in Gypsy Vanner horses. Powers A et al. J Vet Intern Med. 2024 Apr 13. Free article

Long-term performance of show-jumping horses and relationship with severity of ataxia and complications associated with myeloencephalopathy caused by equine herpes virus-1.de la Cuesta-Torrado M et al. J Vet Intern Med. 2024 Apr 12. Free article.

Equine Headshaking Syndrome: Triggers, Seasonality, and Treatment Efficacy in Australia.Bell T et al. Animals (Basel). 2024 Mar 13;14(6):875. 9973 Free PMC article.


White horses – non-coding sequences drive premature hair greying and predisposition to melanoma.Andersson L.Ups J Med Sci. 2024 Apr 2;129. Free PMC article. Review.


Impact of Equine Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia on Interactions between Ocular Transcriptome and Microbiome.Chow L et al. Vet Sci. 2024 Apr 7;11(4):167. Free PMC article.


Strongyle egg shedding and egg reappearance periods in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.Horner A et al. .Vet Parasitol. 2024 Mar 28;328:110176. Free article.

Diet modulates strongyle infection and microbiota in the large intestine of horses.Laroche N et al.PLoS One. 2024 Apr 9;19(4):e0301920. Free PMC article.

The first report of triple anthelmintic resistance on a French Thoroughbred stud farm.Merlin A et al. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2024 Apr;24:100528. Free PMC article.


Follicular metabolic alterations are associated with obesity in mares and can be mitigated by dietary supplementation.Catandi GD et al.Sci Rep. 2024 Mar 30;14(1):7571. Free PMC article.

Detection of Chlamydia psittaci in the Genital Tract of Horses and in Environmental Samples: A Pilot Study in Sardinia.Muroni G et al. .Pathogens. 2024 Mar 7;13(3):236. Free PMC article.


Clinical findings and outcome predictors for multinodular pulmonary fibrosis in horses: 46 cases (2009-2019).Craven A et al. J Vet Intern Med. 2024 Apr 15. Free article.

Comparative study of the bronchodilator efficacy and adverse effects of salbutamol and hyoscine butylbromide in horses with severe asthma. Mozo Vives B, Mainguy-Seers S, Lavoie JP.J Vet Intern Med. 2024 Apr 12. Free article.

Prevalence and severity of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in 2-year-old Thoroughbred racehorses and its relationship to performance.Shoemaker S et al..J Vet Intern Med. 2024 Mar-Apr;38(2):1167-1176. Free PMC article.

Antimicrobial Prescription Behavior in Equine Asthma Cases: An International Survey.van den Brom-Spierenburg AJ et al.Animals (Basel). 2024 Jan 30;14(3):457. Free PMC article.

Sports medicine

Warm-Up Strategies and Effects on Performance in Racing Horses and Sport Horses Competing in Olympic Disciplines.Frippiat T, Votion DM.Animals (Basel). 2024 Mar 19;14(6):945. Free PMC article. Review.

Blood-based assessment of oxidative stress, inflammation, endocrine and metabolic adaptations in eventing horses accounting for plasma volume shift after exercise.Giers J et al.Vet Med Sci. 2024 May;10(3):e1409. Free PMC article.

Advances in the Clinical Diagnostics to Equine Back Pain: A Review of Imaging and Functional Modalities.Domańska-Kruppa N, Wierzbicka M, Stefanik E.Animals (Basel). 2024 Feb 23;14(5):698. Free PMC article.

Impact of different cooling solutions on autonomic modulation in horses in a novice endurance ride.Wonghanchao T et al. Animal. 2024 Apr;18(4):101114. Free article.

Sports medicine – bone and joint

Review of the clinical diagnosis of sacroiliac dysfunction in horses – challenges and limitations.Walter LJ et al.Vet J. 2024 Mar 29:106106.

Equine Models of Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis: A Review of Feasibility, Biomarkers, and Molecular Signaling.Jasiński T, et al.Biomedicines. 2024 Feb 28;12(3):542 Free PMC article. Review.

A missed opportunity: A scoping review of the effect of sex and age on osteoarthritis using large animal models.Stewart HL et al. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2024 May;32(5):501-513. Free article.

International survey of equine orthopaedic specialists reveals diverse treatment strategies for horses with overriding spinous processes.Treß D, Lischer C, Merle R, Ehrle A.Vet Rec. 2024 Feb 20:e3899.

Sports medicine – soft tissue

Microvasculature of the suspensory ligament of the equine hind limb.Williams MR et al. J Vet Res. 2024 Apr 20:1-9. Free article.


How equestrians conceptualise horse welfare: Does it facilitate or hinder change?Luke KL et al. Anim Welf. 2023 Sep 1;32:e59. Free PMC article.
Development, refinement, and validation of an equine musculoskeletal pain scale.Auer U et al. Front Pain Res (Lausanne). 2024 Jan 19;4:1292299. Free PMC article.

New! Ontario equine disease surveillance summary

Equine disease surveillance in Ontario is a collaborative effort involving many public and private stakeholders. Diagnostic results generated by veterinary laboratories, clinical impression and case data provided by equine veterinarians, disease detections reported outside of Ontario by independent organizations, vector surveillance conducted by human health agencies, and research projects facilitated by Academic institutions or the Ontario Animal Health Network (OAHN), are all key sources of surveillance data. Strong communication between these stakeholders and with horse owners and caretakers supports both equine and human health in Ontario.

Please follow the links in the summary above for additional information on the associated activities or organizations and for many resources useful to equine industry members.

ResearchONequine.ca is a website developed by the Ontario Animal Health Network equine network to help increase research awareness and to connect researchers from academia, industry and government with the ultimate goal of improving the lives of all equines. It was supported by OAHN and the Ontario Association of Equine Practitioners.

Report 37



Download Report