Ontario Animal Health Network (OAHN) Swine Network Quarterly Industry Report
Disease Surveillance Discussion
PORCINE EPIDEMIC DIARRHEA (PEDV) / PORCINE DELTACORONAVIRUS (PDCoV)
Jessica Fox, Manager at Swine Health Ontario reported the following cases in Q1:
|Date||County Name||Disease Type||Farm Type|
Jessica reported that there have been 7 additional cases reported in April 2022 with most cases in growing pigs. It is suspected that most of these cases are related to lapses in transport biosecurity:
|Date||County Name||Disease Type||Farm Type|
The PED and PDCoV tracking map shows current and annual cases by county at: http://www.swinehealthontario.ca/Disease-Information/PED-PDCoV-Tracking-Map
The number of PEDV detections in Ontario increased in March and have continued on this trend through April.
There has been an ongoing number of PDCoV detections throughout Q1 with a peak of cases in February.
Take Home Message: Porcine Coronaviruses were active in Q1 and into April of 2022. Producers are encouraged to revisit their biosecurity protocols for both on-farm and off-farm activities (including transportation) and review the importance of biosecurity with their staff and family members working in swine facilities.
Influenza A (IAV)
Influenza virus continued to keep swine producers on their toes in 2022 Q1. All veterinarian’s reporting rated influenza as very common (50%) or common (50%). Forty-five % of veterinarians indicated that IAV activity had increased in Q1 vs Q4. This was supported by increased lab submissions reported at Animal Health Laboratory and Gallant Labs. Syndromic surveillance also detected signals of increased influenza activity toward the end of Q4 that decreased over Q1 with a small increase in March.
Over the last year Influenza H1N2 remains the dominant subtype with an increase of influenza H1N1 which is now equal with influenza subtype H3N2.
Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae (APP)
The frequency of APP is rated by veterinarians as never (17%), rare (75%) and common (8%). One veterinarian indicated that APP activity had increased in Q1 vs Q4. AHL data indicated no significant change in the number of APP submissions in Q1 vs Q4. One veterinarian commented that they had observed a herd that identified APP serotype 8 even though the herd had been closed for 20 years. The herd had previously been diagnosed as positive for APP serotype 7. Dr Al Scorgie reported that the spread of APP serotype 15 in the USA was suspected to involve lateral spread, from one pig to another, from affected farms. Dr. Scorgie further reported that a previous outbreak of APP serotype 8 in the USA was suspected to involve lateral spread although this was not proven to be the means of spread.
Erysipelas is ranked as common by 67% of veterinarians. This is an increase over previous quarters. Twenty-seven % of veterinarians indicated that Erysipelas activity was increased in Q1 vs Q4. Dr. DeLay reported that there were three cases in Q1 where they isolated Erysipelas rhusiopathie. Isolation of this organism has been somewhat sporadic. Dr. Pelland commented that there was an increase in whole carcass condemnations due to Erysipelas in Q1. All of these finding seem to support the apparent seasonal increase in Erysipelas in Q4 and Q1 vs Q2 and Q3 of 2021.
CanSpotASF Surveillance Update
Dr. Tim Pasma provided an update on CanSpotASF activity in Ontario. CanSpotASF is a risk-based early detection testing program that is available at approved Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network (CAHSN) laboratories, which includes the Animal Health Lab (AHL) in Ontario. The CanSpotASF program is set up with the goal of early detection of ASF. It is to be used when ASF is not a main rule-out diagnosis and where early clinical signs of ASF could be masked by other routinely diagnosed swine endemic viruses in Canada. If ASF is suspected on a farm/premise, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) must be notified immediately.
Approved laboratories that are part of the CAHSN network can now test for ASF. Until the launch of this program these types of cases have not been tested. This program works on the premise that early detection if ASF arrives in Canada will in turn limit the spread of this virus, leading to a faster and more efficient outbreak response. Veterinarians and/or pathologists can initiate ASF rule-out testing for submissions that meet eligibility criteria. It is important to note that not all eligible cases will be tested for a variety of reasons including missing information e.g. PID and missing tissues.
CanSpotASF Testing Summary
|OAHN (Ontario) Period||Number of eligible cases||Number of negative cases||Number of positive cases|
|2022 Quarter 1 (Jan 1- Mar 31)||26||14||0|
International Disease Topics Of Interest Summary
Intrauterine Vaccination- A Future Possibility?
The Western College of Veterinary Medicine and Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO) are researching intrauterine vaccination. The researchers are looking at adding the vaccine to the semen. The initial research has been done with PED vaccines. The vaccine would provide protection against PED to both the sow and piglets. They have been able to formulate a vaccine that does not affect semen quality. At this time, the researchers have not been able to develop a single dose vaccine which is not practical. Research is continuing.
How can producers engage in OAHN?
- Read our quarterly producer reports and let us know what you think!
- Discuss the material included in these reports with you herd veterinarian and other swine producers. Help us spread the word!
What to do if you see feral pigs in Ontario…
- OMAFRA is working with the Ministry of Natural Resources & Forestry (MNRF) to put together a wild swine strategy for Ontario. The first step will be to try to identify wild swine within Ontario.
- The MNRF has set up a page on iNaturalist at: www.inaturalist. org/projects/ontariowild-pig-reporting for residents to document any possible wild pigs in Ontario. Sighting information can also be emailed to MNRFSpeciesConservationPolicyBranch@ontario.ca.